The Surrealists and Remedios Varo
Although Remedios Varo did not want to be assigned to a group, neither politically nor artistically, surrealism shapes her early work. In this appendix you will get an overview of this movement and its artists.
1915Francis Picabia und Marcel Duchamp meet Man Ray in New York.
1916 Paris: DADA Magazine SIC. André Breton works in the military with the mentally ill and is interested in psychoanalysis
1917 Guillaume Apollinaire uses the word “surrealism” for his play Les Mameles de Tiresias. André Breton, Louis Aragón and Philippe Soupault are interested in DADA. Zurich: DADA and Cabaret Voltaire, soon also in Berlin with Richard Huelsenbeck.
1918 Last work of Marcel Duchamp in New York. Apollinaire dies in Paris. Tristan Tzara launches the Dadaist Manifest in Zurich.
1919 Breton, Aragon and Soupault published the magazine Litterature and the method automatic writing with their book Les champ magnètiques.
1920 Paris: Tzara meets Breton and starts DADA. René Magritte exhibits for the first time in Brussels.
1921 Man Ray in Paris. Exhibition Salon Dada. Max Ernst paints “The Elephant Celebes” in Cologne.
1922 Breton splits from Tzara and the Dadaists. Hans Arp and Max Ernst arrive in Paris.
1923 André Masson draws the first automatic drawing. Joan Miro moves towards surrealism.
1924 Breton’s Manifeste du surréalisme. Hans Arp, Joan Miró, André Masson, Paul Eluard, Antonin Artaud, Pierre Mabille,Benjamin Péret, Giorgio de Chirico, Max Ernst, Man Ray, and Pablo Picasso. Pierre Naville and Péret´s magazine La Révolution Surréaliste.
1925Yves Tanguy und Jacques Prévert join the group. Ernst invents frottage technique. The first article on the surrealist revolution is published in Mexico.
1926 Pierre Naville, Antonin Artaud and Philippe Soupault leave the group of surrealists.
Breton´s Introduction au discours sur le peu de realité. Founding of Galerie Surrealist. René Margritte moves to Paris. Salvador Salvador Dalí paints like the Surrealists.
1928 Paris: Breton’s Nadja and Le surrèalisme et la peinture. Collective exhibition Arp, Ernst, Miro, Picabia, Tanguy and George Malkine. Salvador Dalí and Luis Buñuel film Un perro andaluz. Mexico: Los Contemporáneos, Diego Rivera and Robert Desnos.
1929 Man Ray films Les mysteres du Chateau de Dé. Alberto Giacometti becomes surrealist,Salvador Dalí´s first exhibition. Masson steps out of the group. Breton condemns Artraud, Masson, Soupault and Vitrac in La révolution surréaliste.
1930 The artist that left the movement criticize Breton in Un cadavre. Breton joins the Communist Party and writes Le surréalismus au service de la révolution with the help of Salvador Dalí, Luis Buñuel, Eluard, Ernst, Tanguy, Péret, Tzara and Louis Aragon. Victor Brauner arrives in Paris.
1931 First exhibition in Connecticut. Mexico: Carlos Orozco Romero, Agustin Lazo and Carlos Mérida.
Breton’s Les veses cominicants. Exhibition in New York.
1933 Albert Skira’s magazine Minotaure in collaboration with Breton, Péret, Salvador Dalí, Eluard and Mabille. Victor Bauer joins the group. Exhibition with Duchamp, Ernst, Dalí.
1934Remedios Varo arrives in the Acadmia de San Fernando in Madrid. Mexico: Artraud’s Drama La conquista de Mexico.
1935 Remedios meets Esteban Frances and the Logiocofobists. Dalí and Masson exhibit in New York. Suicide of Rene Crevel. Wolfgang Paalen joins the group.
1936Remedios Varo meets Benjamin Péret when he comes to Spain to join the anarchists. Dominguez experiments with the decalcomania technique. Mexico: Artraud’s La danza del peyote.
1937 Leonora Carrington meets Max Ernst and flees to Paris. Paalen invents the technique of fumage. Esteban Frances, Roberto Matta and Kurt Seligman join the surrealistic group.
1938 International Exhibition in Paris, Remedios Varo meets Breton, Ernst and Carrington, that becomes her soul sister in Mexico. Ernst and Elaurd leave the group. Breton breaks with communism and meets LeoTrotsky and Diego Rivera in Mexico “…the surrealist land pur excellance…”. Moro comes to Mexico.
1939 Wilfredo Lam exhibits in New York. Matta and Tanguy follow. Breton and Péret are called to militar service. Max Ernst comes to the concentration camp and Carrington collapses and is admitted to a psychiatric hospital in Santander. Salvador Dalí meets Sigmund Freud. Alice Rahon publishes Sablier and moves to Mexico with Paalen.
1940 Matta exhibits in New York, Breton leaves the military and meets Wifredo Lam, André Masson, Max Ernst, Remedios Varo y Benjamin Péret in Marseille. Mexico: Paalen and Moro organize the International Exhibition of Surrealism.
1941 Breton, Masson and Lam arrive in New York via Martinique. Max Ernst follows them and marries Peggy Guggenheim. Breton breaks with Salvador Dalí. Miro and Salvador Dalí exhibit in New York. Leonora flees the institution, marries Renato Leduc and moves with him to the Surrealists to New York.
1942 Exhibition in New York: Chagall, Matta, Tanguy, Ernst and others. William Baziotes und Jackson Pollock write automatic poetry. Remedios and Péret arrive in Mexico.
Duchamp, Ernst and Man Ray appear in the film Dreams that money can buy. Magazine DYN by Paalen and Rahon, Moro’s Lettre D’Amour.
1945 Victor Brauner und André Masson return to Paris.
1946 Breton moves to Haiti, then returns to Paris, as well as Arp, Péret and Miro. Jean-Paul Sartre criticizes Surrealism as “inefficient and metaphysical”. Luis Buñuel moves to Mexico.
1947 Remedios splits from Péret and deepens her friendship with Leonora Carrington, Eva Sulzer, César Moro, Gunther Gerzso and Gordon Onslow Ford.
1948 Antonin Artraud dies. Breton excludes some members from the Group. First International Exhibition in Chile. Moro arrives in Mexico.
1949 Ernst returns to Paris. Remedios travels to Venezuela.
1950 Luis Buñuel films Los olvidados (The Forgotten).
1951 Wolfgang Paalen exhibits in Paris.
1952 Death of Paul Elaurd and Pierre Mabille.
1953 Remedios Varo and Walter Grün come together. He gives her the necessary security to devote herself fully to her work.
1954 Death of Frida Kahlo.
1955 Death of César Moro. Octavio Paz publishes El Surrealismo
1956 First solo exhibition of Remedios Varo in Galeria Diana.
1959 Death of Péret and Paalen. Exhibition in honour of Frida Kahlo with works by Remedios, Carrington and Rahon.
1961 Remedios exhibits in Galeria Juan Martin.
1963 Death of Remedios Varo.